First, the classification of compost
Plant material such as crop stalks, green manure, weeds, etc., mixed with soil, human excrement, garbage, etc., and is decomposed by aerobic microorganisms. It is mostly used as base fertilizer, and the application amount is large, which can provide nutrients and improve soil properties, especially for improving sandy soil, clay soil and saline soil.
The method of making compost manure are divided into high-temperature composting and ordinary composting according to different raw materials. Aerobic method of composting uses plant matter with high fiber content as the main raw material. It is composted and fermented under aeration conditions, producing a lot of heat, and the temperature inside the compost is high (60-70 ° C), so it is fast decomposed, composted quickly, and has high nutrient content.
The high temperature fermentation process can kill the germs, insect eggs and weed seeds. Ordinary compost is generally mixed with more soil, the fermentation temperature is low, the composting process is slow, and the composting time is long. During compost fertilizer from cow dung, the chemical composition of nutrients is changed, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen is reduced, the mineral nutrients that can be directly absorbed by plants increase, and humus is formed.
1. High-temperature composting method, in the leeward and sunny place near the water source, according to the proportion of straw, manure, animal and plant residues, sludge, etc., add some manure containing pyrolytic bacteria (such as mule manure or its extract) or fermented manure Stacked compost. The temperature in the compost is controlled at about 60°C for about half a month, which can fully kill the pathogenic bacteria, parasite eggs and weed seeds in the compost. Live maggots, pupae, or newly emerged adults.
2. Common composting method, composting is carried out under anaerobic conditions. Generally, semi-pit composting is used, that is, a rectangular pit is dug, and organic fertilizers such as straw, manure, animal and plant nitrogen sources and soil are piled up layer by layer. Shape it into a steamed bun, press it tightly, and turn it over after 1 month. Put the poorly decomposed one at the bottom and seal it with soil. 1-2 months in summer and autumn, and 3-4 months in winter. This composting method is convenient to make fertilizer, but it takes a long time and the degree of decomposing is uneven.
2. Good conditions for compost to decompose
1. Moisture. Maintaining proper water content is the primary condition for promoting microbial activity and compost fermentation. Generally, 60%-75% of the maximum water holding capacity of the compost material is appropriate. You can use a de-watering machine to adjust water in your raw materials.
2, ventilation. Maintaining proper air in the heap is conducive to the reproduction and activity of aerobic microorganisms and promotes the decomposition of organic matter. When composting at high temperature, more attention should be paid to the tightness of the stack to facilitate ventilation. Therefore, you need a manure compost machine.
3. Maintain a neutral or slightly alkaline environment. An appropriate amount of lime or calcareous soil can be added to neutralize and adjust the acidity and promote the reproduction and activity of microorganisms.
4. Carbon to nitrogen ratio. The carbon-nitrogen ratio for the normal decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms is 25:1. The carbon-nitrogen ratio of legume green manure is 15-25:1, the weed is 25-45:1, and the grass stem is 60-100:1. Therefore, according to the type of compost material, an appropriate amount of high nitrogen-containing substances should be added to reduce the carbon-nitrogen ratio and promote microbial activity. Some bases make their own organic fertilizers by purchasing chicken manure, pig manure, etc., while livestock and poultry manure cannot be used directly, and must be fermented and decomposed before they can be safely used. The immature organic fertilizer contains certain pathogenic bacteria, viruses, nematodes, root mites, weed seeds, etc., which lead to frequent plant diseases and overgrown weeds in the field; at the same time, the immature organic fertilizer produces harmful gases during the process of composting chicken manure for fertilizer, which is easy to cause burning. Root, soil water shortage and other hazards.
3. Stacked materials
It is mainly composed of main material, auxiliary material, leavening agent or quicklime. The main material is cow, sheep, pig, and rabbit feces, accounting for about 80%; the auxiliary materials are various crop straws, fungus residues, litter, sawdust, etc., accounting for about 20%; other: starter (if conditions can be purchased, no need)
Fourth, the composting period
During spring, summer and autumn, the outdoor temperature is kept above 20℃ for composting.
5. Venue selection
Choose open land with sunny, slightly higher terrain, favorable drainage and convenient transportation.
6. Stacking method
The preparation of organic fertilizer is to mix the main materials and auxiliary materials, adjust the moisture (the moisture is controlled at about 60%), build the pile (2 meters wide, 1 meter high, and the length is not limited), and seal the pile (each 1-2 meters in the pile is inserted into the pile). Ventilation holes or small handfuls of corn stalks, provide oxygen channels for microorganisms, cover with plastic sheets), turn the heap (when the temperature in the heap reaches 60 ℃, turn the heap with a compost turner machine).
7. Decomposition check
The organic fertilizer must be fully decomposed. Criteria for decomposing completion:
1. The heap temperature drops below 40°C and remains unchanged.
2. The humidity of the compost is below 35%, there is no odor of raw materials, and there is a slight smell of ammonia.
3. The decomposed compost is dark brown, and the juice is light brown or colorless.
4. White hyphae are produced in the heap.