How to manage animal manure on large-scale farms?
There are three main methods:
1. When fertilizer is sold or sent out. China has always had a tradition of fertilizing with manure, and many animal manure can be used in the planting process. As a result, farms can sell animal manure nearby or give it to local farmers. This can not only solve the problem of manure on the farm, but also have a good relationship with the surrounding farmers.
2. Biogas digester use. However, this method requires a relatively large investment, but after the construction of the biogas digester, the benefits are still many. Not only does it consume manure, but it can also provide some resources and even electricity for the daily production of the farm.
3. Integration of planting and breeding. In fact, this method is somewhat similar to the first method, which uses manure as fertilizer, but this method is used at home. The fermentation of manure is directly used for home grain cultivation or pasture planting, which can reduce the cost of fertilizer planted and the cost of feed for feeding.
1. The principle of manure composting in farms
The best composting treatment is the process of degrading the organic matter in solid feces through microbial action under the condition of artificial control of water, carbon-nitrogen ratio and ventilation, making it mineralized, humused and harmless. Compost is mainly divided into aerobic compost and anaerobic compost, and at present, it is mainly based on aerobic compost. The composted manure nutrient composition is more stable, more conducive to crop absorption, and at the same time can improve the soil condition, so farmers, small and medium-sized farms or farms basically apply this treatment mode.
2. The basic process of manure fertilizer making in farms
The use of aerobic microorganisms to decompose complex organic matter into stable humus, while generating heat energy, the internal temperature of feces gradually increases, reaching 60-70% high temperature and can last for several days, not only can reduce the moisture, but also can kill the harmful pathogenic microorganisms, parasites, insect eggs and miscellaneous seeds, etc., the decomposed material no longer has a smell, easy to be absorbed by crops, the whole process continues from dozens of days to months according to the process, to achieve the procedure of making compost manure.
In order to further increase the decomposition rate of aerobic composting, when the reactor temperature rises to 50 ° C, it can start to turn the pile with the help of the trough piler, which not only improves the efficiency of manual pile turning, but also solves the problem of uneven manual pile turning and saves labor. When turning over the pile, the appropriate pile turning cycle should be adopted according to the change of the temperature of the pile. When the temperature is in the rising stage, it takes 1 day to turn the pile; When the temperature begins to drop to 30 ~ 45 ° C, you can slowly stop turning over the pile, and you can turn the pile once every 3 to 5 days. When the color of the pile is dark brown, do not turn the pile again, just let it rot.
The manure compost of the farm is decomposed, which can not only effectively solve the problem of manure pollution in the farm, but also make organic fertilizer to reduce the amount of chemical fertilizer, avoid excessive use of chemical fertilizer, resulting in soil compaction, reduced fertilizer efficiency, and excessive plant potassium residues. Long-term use of organic fertilizer can also improve the content of organic fertilizer in the soil, improve crop flavor, etc., alleviate soil compaction, and improve fertilizer utilization.